Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder

Background:
The Paddy is grown world-wide mostly by hand transplanting of seedlings in puddled soil. The farmers in many parts of the world are using different types of paddy transplanters that require mat-type seedlings.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder

Due to the complexity in operation of machine, its high cost, necessity of growing mat type seedlings & variation in efficiency of machine in different kinds of soil and also in different fields the pace of adoption of the transplanter is very slow in India.

The Direct Seeded Paddy (DSP) cultivation is picking pace with the development of some improved varieties as well as on account of development of effective weedicides. At present, the farmers are slowly adopting the DSR (Direct Seeded Rice) technology and are broadcasting dry seeds of paddy in well-pulverized soil. The mixing of seed in soil upon broadcasting by tillage equipments result into dispersal of seed at variable depth in randomized pattern, accounting to poor germinations of seed followed by poor crop establishment.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder  Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat SeederProfitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder

The Rice-Wheat Seeder equipment is capable of regulating the seed rate and put the seeds in soil at desired depth with proper maintenance of plant-to-plant distance ranging from 8-15 cm within the row. This character of machine helps the users to grow paddy in well defined row spaced at 20 cm and, thus, leaves the farmers with opportunities of using the mechanical weeding tools in between two consecutive rows for weeding.

The scientist of College of Agricultural Engineering, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa developed the Rice Wheat Seeder equipment and the same is being manufactured by M/s Bihar Maa Durga Agro. Industries Pvt. Ltd., Pandaul, District Madhubani, Bihar.

Features of Equipment:

Effective width of equipment

:

0.96 meter

Recommended working speed

:

1.8 – 2.25 km/h

Effective field capacity

:

0.40 – 0.50 ha/day

No. of labor required                

:

02

Seed capacity of each drum     

:

5 kg

Recommended filling  weight in drum 

:

3 kg

No. of Drums/Machine

:

02

No. of row of holes on each drum

:

04 (two rows on each side)

No. of furrow opener & seed collector

:

04

No. of depth control wheals

:

02

No. of depth control settings hole         

:

03

Minimum and maximum achieved depth for seeding

:

1.0 cm (Min.) & 3.0 cm Max.)

Field Performance of Equipment:
The machine was evaluated in paddy and wheat crop in the research farm of Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University (DRPCAU), Pusa as well as in Krishi Vigyan Kendra farm of Bihar Agricultural University (BAU) Sabour, Bhagalpur.

Particulars

On Farm Trail at DRPCAU Pusa

On Farm Trail at BAU, Sabour

Location

Research plot of DRPCAU,
Pusa

Research plot of KVK Sabour, Bhagalpur

Crop

Paddy

Paddy

Variety

“Rajendra Saraswati”

“Rajendra Sweta”

Method of Cultivation

Seeding of dry seeds in well pulverized soil

Seeding of dry seeds in well pulverized soil

Field preparation

 By Rotavator in two passes

By Rotavator in two passes

Date of seeding/harvesting

15.06.2018/07.10.2018

24.06.2018/05.11.2019

Seed rate (kg)/
Yield (kg/ha)

22.0 /4000

22.0/3880

Performance in Farmers Fields:
(Direct seeding by Equipment Vs Transplanting)
The direct seeding of paddy by Rice-Wheat Seeder was evaluated against the transplanting method in farmer’s field. The enhancement in yield by the equipment was found in range of 5 - 25 % at different locations.

S. No.

Farmers’ Name & Address

Variety

Yield (kg/ha) by Rice-Wheat Seeder

Yield (kg / ha) by  Transplanting Method

% gain in yield

1.

Sunil Kumar, Muradpur,
Block - Dumara, Sitamarhi

Rajendra
Sarsawati

3760

3295

14.11

2.

Rajan Kumar Ray,
Pandaul, Madhubani

Rajendra
Bhagawati

6500

5200

25

3.

Sailendra Pratab Singh,
Arah, Bojpur

Gangotri

4549

3960

14.87

4.

Pankaj Kumar, Birnoudh,
Goradh, Bhagalpur

Rajendra Sweta

3630

3350

8.35

5.

Pramanand Gupta,
Birnoudh, Goradh, Bhagalpur

Rajendra
Mansuri

3970

3420

16.08

6.

Amarnath Kumar, Village - Rasalpur, Dumara, Sitamarhi

Smarth

3800

3680

3.26

7.

Ajay Kumar Singh, Basant Patti, Purnahiya Seohar.

Sawrna
Sub-1

4485

4179

7.32

Cost of Cultivation (Direct seeding by Equipment Vs Transplanting):

S. No.

Farm Operation

Cost in DSR by Rice-Wheat Seeder
 (Rs. / ha)

Cost by Transplanting Method
(Rs. / ha)

Net Saving over Transplanting
(Rs. / ha)

1.

Land preparation

4500.0

4500.0

-

2.

Seedling raising

-

1200.0

1200.0

3.

Puddling

-

3750.0

3750.0

4.

Irrigation

1700.0
(one light irrigation within 24 hr of seeding)

3750.0
(for puddling)

2000.0

5.

Machine operation

1700.0 (two labour)

-

(-) 1700.0

6.

Transplanting

-

6000.0

6000.0

7.

Chemical weeding

2000.0

1200.0

(-) 800.0

 

Net Saving

Rs. 10,450.0

Dissemination and Adoption:
The equipment has been demonstrated at many places inside and outside Bihar by the manufacturing company, KVKs and State Government Officials for wider use. The equipment was included under hybrid promotional plan of a reputed company named “Pioneer Seeds”. On using the Rice-Wheat Seeder equipment for line sowing of rice and wheat, the farmers of Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar have realized the higher yield in wheat crop too in comparison to the well-adopted practice of growing wheat by the broadcasting method.

 

S. No.

Name of Equipment Purchaser/User

Quantity

Area under demonstration in ha

1.

Department of Plant Breeding, DRPCAU, Pusa

01

0.40

2.

Department of FMPE, CAE Pusa

01

0.50

3.

KVK, BAU, Sabour

02

2.0

4.

KVKs, Barh, Patna

01

0.30

5.

KVK, Seohar

02

1.0

6.

KVK, Vaishali

01

1.25

7.

KVK, Khodabandpur

01

0.40

8.

KVK, Arah, Bojpur

01

1.25

9.

KVK, Buxar

01

0.20

10.

KVK, Latehar, Jharkhand

01

0.35

11.

Borlauge Institute of South Asia (BISA)

01

0.40

12.

Pioneer Seed

512

250.0

13.

D.A.O., Supaul

01

0.40

14.

Agricultural Specialists, Government of Bihar

01

1.0

15.

Hon’ble Agriculture Minister, Bihar

01

0.20

Feedback:
All the users were satisfied with the performance of machine and most of them had realized better yield of paddy in direct seeding than the transplanted rice under proper weed control.

Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder  Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder  Profitable Paddy Cultivation through Direct Seeding Technology by Rice-Wheat Seeder

Due to excessive weed, deficient moisture and faulty operation of machine at some places, the results were not very much encouraging. However, all the users were of view that by the use of the rice-wheat seeder the paddy can be successfully cultivated with net saving of about Rs. 4,000 - 5,000 / acre. The machine was found easy in operation, adjustment and maintenance.

(Source: College of Agricultural Engineering, Dr. Rajendra Prasad Central Agricultural University, Pusa, Samastipur, Bihar)