‘DAC’ Technology for All-Weather Biogas Production Exclusively From Poultry Excreta
Industrialization and intensification of poultry farming has led to generation of poultry wastes to the tune of 28-30 million metric tonnes per annum. These wastes are posing many environmental and health threats due to lack of proper utilization technologies/ disposal methods. Therefore, scientists of ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly (UP)-243122 had developed a novel ‘DAC’ technology for all-weather biogas production exclusively from poultry excreta. This technology was tested on a pilot biogas plant comprising of anaerobic digester (200 lit) with various common components like inlet pipe, outlet pipe, gas collector, biogas compressor, gas cylinders etc. (Fig.1). The poultry biogas burns like LPG with blue flame (Fig.2). The composition of poultry biogas revealed that the methane (%, V/V) was 60.02 which is equal to or better than biogas available from other methods and substrate.
The signifying point of this technology is that only poultry excreta are required for biogas production. There is no need to add cow dung which is commonly being mixed for biogas production from poultry excreta in other methods. This technology also helps in conservation of water as used slurry of digester is reutilized again and again as dilutor for poultry excreta. Round the year i.e. both during summer and winter biogas production is possible from this technology. It is pertinent that, in India, most of the biogas plants become non-functional during winter season due to lower ambient temperature. In ‘DAC’ technology 12-13 to 19-20 kg poultry excreta is required for production of about one cubic meter of biogas during summer and winter seasons, respectively. This quantity of biogas is sufficient for cooking 3-times meals of an average family comprising 4-5 members. This can also be used as heat source at poultry farm. Spent slurry of poultry biogas has good manure value and germination potential and can be easily applied in agricultural fields for organic crop production without burning effect on plants which is a common problem with crude poultry excreta.
This technology may be helpful in self sustainability of rural poultry farmers in terms of their energy demand. The excreta of 5000 layers birds has capacity to produce approximately 4100 kg biogas per annum whose market value will be around Rs. 1.31 lakh, if cost of biogas is considered at the rate is considered Rs. 32.00 per kg. There is potential to produce around 128 tonnes of manure from spent slurry. The value of this manure will stand around Rs. 2.56 lakhs on urea, phosphate, potash and micronutrient equivalence basis. Therefore, this technology has great potential of value addition to the tune of 5-6 times from invaluable poultry excreta. Besides, generating the financial gains to the poultry farmer, this technology has enormous positive impact on environment by drastically reducing pollutants, bad odour and flies thereby also helping in accomplishing the Sawachch Bharata Mission.
(Source: ICAR-Central Avian Research Institute)